It is similar in some ways to the MLA style but highlights the currency of the work in question so is often recommended by librarians to students in the sciences and engineering who are familiar with MLA but want to use a style more appropriate for their discipline.
The works that inform your research, mentioned in the text of your paper where contextually appropriate.
Three components are required:
*Include a page number if you're directly quoting a work or discussing an observation from the work, but if you're speaking more generally about the gist of the work, page numbers are not needed.
For short quotations or paraphrases, works can be cited in-text in two ways, always within the punctuation (that is, before the period):
For quotations longer than 40 words, the text must be block-indented and the parenthetical citation must come after the sentence's punctuation.
In 2008, Burhans noted that:
As more and more Florida potato farms are lost to development, recent events in potato breeding may reduce chippers’ dependence on early Florida potatoes. At the time of this writing, new varieties, such as Dakota Pearl and Glacier Chips, have been successfully stored into June, well past the April date when storage potatoes are usually giving out. According to some, these varieties will be able to tolerate storage temperature fluctuations as great as ten to twenty degrees without turning to sugar, chipping white the whole time. (p. 9)
Capitalize titles: If citing a title in-text, capitalize the key words (unlike the Reference list, in which only the first word of a title is capitalized).
You refer only to authors by their last name, either in the use of the author's name in the text itself or in the parentheses. Use a page number if what you're citing is directly from a page (a quote or observation), but do not if you're speaking more generally about the gist of the work. The last of multiple authors is marked with an ampersand in parentheses, but spell out "and" if used in text.
Full bibliographic information for the works you refer to in the text of your paper.
Author(s). (year, month day). Title of article. Journal Title, volume(number), page number-page number. DOI or URL.
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Subtitle of work. Publisher Name.
For more help:
Write all author names, starting with the listed first author, as Last name, First initial. Second initial (if applicable). (example: Orlofsky, V. L.). The last of multiple authors is marked with an ampersand unless there are more than 20 authors (see example below).
Garrett-Scott, S. (2019). Banking on freedom: Black women in U.S. finance before the New Deal. Columbia University Press.
Evans, S. Y., Domingue, A. D., & Mitchell, T. D. (2019). Black women and social justice education: Legacies and lessons. SUNY Press.
Cobb, C. E. Who Is Fannie Lou Hamer? A movement veteran reflects on teaching civil rights history. In H.K. Jeffries (Ed.), Understanding and teaching the Civil Rights Movement (pp. 13-21). University of Wisconsin Press.
Per the Purdue OWL APA guide: "It is not necessary to note that you have used an eBook or audiobook when the content is the same as a physical book. However, you should distinguish between the eBook or audiobook and the print version if the content is different or abridged, or if you would like to cite the narrator of an audiobook."
Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of book. Publisher. URL
Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of book [ebook edition]. Publisher. URL
When citing a review of a work (music recording, film, artwork, book, etc.), it's important to include the name of the work being reviewed as well as citation information about the review itself.
Note: you can determine who to name as the author of the page by looking to the website's footer for the copyright notice. That will also tell you the year of publication, if you haven't found that info elsewhere on the site.
Wildland Tours [@WildlandsOceans]. (2020, August 21). Had a wonderful morning picking blueberries along the East Coast Trail in Petty Harbour! #berrypicking #blueberries #pettyharbour #EastCoastTrail #Hiking #locallove [Video attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/WildlandsOceans/status/1296816254406328320
Refer to the author of the tweet in text by name, not their Twitter account.
Emojis and hashtags count as words toward the 20-word total for the tweet title.
For more on citing tweets, see Twitter References (APA Style blog).
National Cancer Institute. (2019). Taking time: Support for people with cancer (NIH Publication No. 18-2059). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/takingtime.pdf
Example taken from Report by a Government Agency References (APA Style blog).
National Institute of Mental Health. (2018, July). Anxiety disorders. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/anxiety-disorders/index.shtml
Example taken from Webpage on a Website References (APA Style blog).
Note: If there is no author name listed, use the agency. Parent agencies should be listed in the reference citation, but not in-text.