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EN 423: Environmental Engineering Senior Design

A collection of resources for use in EN Senior Design projects.


Patents are the form of intellectual property registration specifically meant for inventions, including plants and designs, to prevent others from making, using, or selling the invention in the U.S.

American patents are filed with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).


Patent Types


The most common, meant for "process, machine, article of manufacture, compositions of matter, or any new useful improvement thereof" (USPTO Patent FAQ). Duration of a patent for applications marked June 8, 1995 and after, begins on the date of the grant and ends 20 years from date of application, as long as maintenance fees have been paid.


To register "a new, original, and ornamental design for an article of manufacture" (USPTO Patent FAQ). Duration is 14 years from the date the patent was granted, no maintenance fees required. Design patent numbers start with a D.


To register the creation of new "asexually reproduced plant varieties" (USPTO Patent FAQ). Duration of a patent for applications marked June 8, 1995 and after, begins on the date of the grant and ends 20 years from date of application. No maintenance fees required. Plant patent numbers start with a P.


To file a patent with the USPTO, visit the USPTO's Patents site.

A useful tutorial on how to read a patent: "Patents and Patentability" (created by the UMN Libraries).


Patent: Wildman, J.R. (1981, December 29). U.S. Patent No. D262,473. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Finding Patents & Patent Applications


International Patent Offices

Patent applications are submitted to the government body responsible for intellectual property in each country or region.

  • National offices include the U.S. Patent and Trademark Organization (USPTO), the Canadian Intellectual Property Organization (CIPO), the Japan Patent Office (JPO), and others.
  • Regional offices include the African Regional Intellectual Property Organization (ARIPO), the Eurasian Patent Organization (EAPO) and the European Patent Office (EPO).
  • Internationally, the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) collects patent applications and documents from the national and regional bodies. PatentScope, the WIPO patent database, includes all the above listed patent offices in their collections.

To find patents and patent applications, a good first step is the government body responsible. However, as these databases can be tricky to use and the information they provide is free, there are a number of free services that aim to make patent searching a bit easier. Stevens students, faculty and staff can also find patents in Scopus, one of the Library's subscription databases.

American Patents (U.S. Patent and Trademark Office)

International Patents (World Intellectual Property Office)

Free Patent Search

Domestic or international

Subscription Database

Log into Okta if prompted.

Government Depository Libraries

The federal government designates several libraries around the country as Depository Libraries, meaning they receive copies of all or most government publications (such as patents) to make these documents available to everyone.

We live near two of them: the Newark Public Library and the New York Public Library.

Both of these libraries are open to the public, meaning you can use certain resources without a library card. We recommend checking their websites for hours of availability and directions.


Newark Public Library

The Newark Public Library is one of two designated Patent and Trademark Depository Libraries in New Jersey (the other is Rutgers Library of Science and Medicine-Piscataway).

Holdings include:

  • U.S. Patents/Utility -- Available on microfilm from 1790 to the present.
  • U.S. Patents/Design -- Available on microfilm from 1939.
  • Official Gazette -- This weekly publication contains the abstracted version of new utility and design patents. On microfilm from 1872. In paper from 1931.
New York Public Library: Science, Industry and Business

Also a Patent & Trademark Depository Library, the Stavros Niarchos Foundation Library (formerly known as the Science, Industry and Business Library) holds the entire collection of U.S. Patents on microfilm as well as a Foreign and International Patents Collection.

Holdings include:

  • U.S. Patents/Utility ‚ Available on microfilm from 1790 to the present. On CD-ROM from 1994 to the present.
  • U.S. Patents/Design ‚ Available on microfilm from 1842 to the present.
  • Foreign & International Patents:
    • Denmark. 1895-present
    • European Patent Office. A1/A2 1978-present, A3 1988-present, B1/B2 1981-present
    • France. 1899-1970, 1982-present
    • Germany. Patent #s 1-977,889 and 1957- present
    • Japan. 1910-1941, 1950-1973, 1982-present
    • Sweden. 1885-present
    • Switzerland. 1984-present
    • United Kingdom (Great Britain). 1673-present
    • USSR (Russia). 1987-1992
  • World Intellectual Property Organization (i.e., World or PCT Patents). 1981-present

How to Cite a Patent


Source: IEEE Editorial Style Manual

J. K. Author, “Title of patent,” U.S. Patent x xxx xxx, Abbrev. Month, day, year.

J. P. Wilkinson, “Nonlinear resonant circuit devices,” U.S. Patent 3 624 125, July 16, 1990.

Note: Use “issued date” if several dates are given.


Source: Scribbr

Inventor Last Name, Initials. (Year Of Patent Issue). Patent Identifier No.. State, city: Patent Office Name.

Bell, A. G. (1876). U.S. Patent No. 174,465. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.


Source: The ACS Style Guide, Ch. 14: References

Patent Owner 1; Patent Owner 2; etc. Title of Patent. Patent Number, Date.

Sheem, S. K. Low-Cost Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor. U.S. Patent 6,738,537, May 18, 2004.

Intellectual Property

The World Intellectual Property Organization defines intellectual property as "creations of the mind, such as inventions; literary and artistic works; designs; and symbols, names and images used in commerce." IP is a legal term, and these "creations of the mind" are legally protected for a period of time so that the creators have an incentive to create, but eventually they fall out of legal protection so that the creations can be reused and expanded upon by future creators.

Inventions are protected by patents; literary and artistic works by copyright; and designs, symbols, names and images by trademark. Below are some resources for learning more about IP and how to protect your own.